Computer maintenanceFor Windows, and including free third-party maintenance apps
If your computer or Windows device is starting to feel slow, busy, or unresponsive, try following the computer maintenance tips on this page. They will be especially helpful if you have an older Windows device that you haven't cleaned up in a while, but they will help with new Windows devices too.
If you're using Windows 10, and you only want to use Windows 10's built-in maintenance tools, please see Windows 10 maintenance.
Keep things up to date
It's good to keep Windows, your apps, and your security software up to date. To get your computer or Windows device running fast and smoothly, follow some of the maintenance tips on this page.
Ask anyone about computer maintenance, and you will probably hear the name CCleaner. CCleaner is a free program to help keep your PC running smoothly. It offers easy one-click removal of unwanted and unnecessary temporary files, browser history, cookies, and old and unused registry entries. You can get it here.
Edit (Jan 20, 2020):
I stayed away from CCleaner for about a year, as I felt that Windows 10 seems to do a good job of staying healthy nowadays, and I questioned whether a third-party maintenance app was really necessary for Windows anymore.
As chance would have it, I did have a few issues recently where Windows 10 wouldn't shut down properly. I'm always happy to back up my files and do a clean reinstall of Windows whenever Microsoft releases a major Windows update.
So, I decided to try CCleaner again to clean the PC and fix the registry (I made a registry backup just in case.)
Sure enough, CCleaner safely removed a bunch of files and fixed the registry, and now the PC shuts down quickly, as it should.
So, I decided to keep CCleaner listed on this Computer Maintenance page.
Check you have up-to-date and working Internet Security
If you've just installed or purchased a PC with Windows 10, it already comes with Windows Security (formerly called Windows Defender) built in. To check it's working, see here: Check your security is up to date. Keep Windows up to date and the security will stay updated.
You can install a paid, or different Free security app if you choose.
Edit: Windows 7 is no longer supported, so there is no reason to be using it.
If you have Windows 7 and you don't have internet security, you can check out and download reputable free security software via the Free security apps for Windows page. I used to use Microsoft Security Essentials in Windows 7. Please note that 'Defender' in Windows 7 is not the same as the security app Windows Security (formerly called Windows Defender) in Windows 8 through 10.
Whichever security app you have, you can keep it up to date, and periodically run a full system security scan, allowing the software to find and delete (or quarantine) unwanted stuff.
Run Windows Update
Keep Windows up to date by running Windows Update. If you can, set it to update automatically. Of course, the computer needs to be online (connected to the internet) for any updating to take place.
To run Windows Update do the following:
In Windows 10:
Press the Windows key + I to open the Settings.
Windows + I - Settings
Then click on 'Update & Security', then click on 'Check for updates'.
In Windows 8:
Press the Windows key + C to access the charms bar.
Windows + C - Access Charms bar
Then click on 'Settings', then click on 'Change PC Settings'. Then click on 'Windows Update'. Then click on 'Check for updates now'.
In Windows 7:
Click the Start Button. Click 'All Programs'. Look through the list and find and click on 'Windows Update'. Then click 'Check for updates'. If there are any updates click on 'Install updates'.
Set updates to automatic
Set Windows, your security software, and your apps to update automatically. Setting everything to update automatically means that you needn't worry about remembering to update manually, and updated programs are more secure. Again the computer needs to be online (connected to the internet) for any updating to take place.
Empty the Recycle Bin
(The above 'Run CCleaner' step will also empty your recycle bin.)
Some people are unaware that simply deleting a file will not actually remove it from your hard drive, which in turn removes clutter and creates space.
The recycle bin needs to be 'emptied'. To do this simply find your recycle bin icon on your desktop and right-click it. Then choose 'Empty Recycle Bin'. Then choose 'Yes'. That's it.
Uninstall old and unused programs
Sometimes people have many old, out of date and unnecessary programs installed on their computers. These take up space, use up resources, and make the computer less secure.
To keep your computer or Windows device well maintained, I recommend uninstalling programs which you don't use or foresee yourself using - especially out-of-date software. With less old stuff installed, there will be less chance of incompatibility issues, and you should have a more secure system.
To remove programs you can use the Uninstall tab within the Tools section in CCleaner, or if you prefer to do it within Windows go to Start Menu - Control Panel - Add/Remove Programs or Programs and Features.
Then click on any old programs in the list you don't need and click Uninstall. If you are not sure what something is, then leave it alone for now and find out more about it online later. As you get started, just uninstall obvious programs that you don't need to have installed. Searching online for program names (and versions) should help you to recognize most of the main programs.
After uninstalling apps, you might run CCleaner again to delete unwanted files and clean up the registry.
Check that your apps have the latest updates
You can install a free app updater program, like Patch My PC Updater, to check that the apps on your PC are up to date.
Check drives are optimized
Be sure to optimize your drives or have Windows regularly keep your drives optimized with the Optimize Drives app.
This app will defragment traditional hard drives or trigger Trim for SSDs.
Click the image below for a screenshot.
Analyze your drives and Optimize them if recommended. Make sure the scheduled optimization is turned on to run weekly.
To find the Optimize Drives app, do the following:
For Windows 10:
Press the Windows key + S to open Search.
Windows + S - Search
Then type 'optimize'. Then click on 'Defragment and Optimize Drives' to open up the Optimize Drives app.
For Windows 8.1:
Press the Windows key + S (or Q) to open Search.
Windows + S - Search
Then type 'Defragment'. Then click on 'Defragment and Optimize Drives' to open up the Optimize Drives app.
For Windows 7:
Press the Windows key + E to show the computer drives.
Windows + E - Show computer drives
Then right-click a drive and choose Properties - Tools - Optimize.
Clean dust filters and inside your case
People often forget that dust, fluff and animal fur, etc. can get inside the computer case. Over time this debris builds up and sticks to dust filters, fan blades, heatsinks, vents, breather holes, and just about everything, causing the device to overheat.
Therefore, it's a good idea to periodically clean inside and around your computer case to keep everything clean and dust free.
Doing so will allow for better airflow, keeping the computer and its components cooler, and allow your PC to run more smoothly.
For Desktop PCs:
Simply switch off and unplug your PC. Open the case (usually by taking off a side or top panel). Try not to touch electrical components inside the case in case you accidentally damage them from any static electricity you have in your body (from carpet, clothes, etc.). To minimize this possibility, touch the metal frame of your case to discharge any static you might have or wear an anti-static wrist strap.
Then simply vacuum out your case. Wipe and vacuum close to all fans and stationary heatsinks. Gently wipe all fan blades too if you can access them, and you can check that they can spin freely.
For Laptop PCs:
Switch off and unplug your laptop. Vacuum all of the vents or breather holes to remove as much dust and dirt as you can.
When you do use your laptop, make sure you use it on a hard flat surface, as opposed to a carpet, so that air can easily flow underneath and up into the vents to keep it cool.
Check for malware
You can't have a computer maintenance page without mentioning the word malware. Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems.
If you want to find and remove malware from your PC, then you could try apps like Malwarebytes Anti-Malware Free or other popular second opinion anti-malware apps. If you scan your PC and Malwarebytes finds anything important which you'd like to remove, you could then consider buying the full version.
Malwarebytes 3.0 (Anti-Malware)
Malwarebytes 3.0 (commonly known as Malwarebytes Anti-Malware) is considered to be one of the best anti-malware programs you can have. It's able to detect malware which many anti-virus programs often miss. You can get it here.
Stop annoying popup ads
Many people unknowingly install unwanted and annoying programs, browser plugins or malware by accidentally clicking on popup advertisements in the browser, which are designed to look like system prompts.
Using a modern web browser with a built-in ad blocker, or using a web browser extension like AdBlock will help prevent these ads from showing up.
AdBlock is a free extension available for some web browsers, and as its name suggests it stops and blocks ads from downloading to your computer and showing up in the browser. Visit AdBlock official site.
To keep my computer healthy, I run the full version of Malwarebytes Premium in Windows 10, alongside Windows Security (formerly Windows Defender). Windows Security doesn't need any help, but I do notice Malwarebytes occasionally blocking sites or connections in the background, which is nice to see. Once in a while I'll do a scan with HitmanPro. I also like to use Microsoft Edge extensions like AdBlock or uBlock Origin and Ghostery.
Remove malicious browser add-ons, extensions or plugins
If you are getting popup windows or adverts, unexpected toolbars, or your browser keeps opening an unwanted webpage, then you might have an uninvited web browser add-on, extension or plugin which needs to be uninstalled. To do so, follow these steps:
1. First, we need to remove the main program on the PC. As written above in 'Uninstall old and unused programs', to remove programs you can use the Uninstall tab within the Tools section in CCleaner, or if you prefer to do it within Windows go to Start Menu - Control Panel - Add/Remove Programs or Programs and Features.
Then click on any old programs in the list you don't want, or you suspect to be browser add-ons and click Uninstall. (If you are not sure what something is, then Bing it or Google it to find out more.
2. Remove the malicious browser add-on, extension or plugin within the browser. (Because they don't always get removed when the main program is uninstalled.)
For Internet Explorer:
In Internet Explorer the offending browser add-on, extension or plugin is usually removed along with the main program. To check anyway click on the Gear icon or press Alt+X. Then click on Manage add-ons.
Then go to the Toolbars and Extensions tab. Click on any undesirable extension in the list (if you have any) and click on the Disable button (if it shows up). Then you can close the Window and click OK. Click the image below for a screenshot.
In Firefox click on Open Menu or Main Menu, then Add-ons.
Click on the Extensions tab. Click on any undesirable listed extension and then click the Disable button. Click the image below for a screenshot.
In Chrome click on the Main Menu icon and choose Settings.
Click on Extensions listed on the left. Choose any undesirable extension and click on the trashcan icon to remove the extension. If prompted click Remove.
Many boxed PCs come with totally unnecessary apps or bloatware, intended to help make PC makers money. If you'd like to remove these unnecessary apps, you can try the free program PC Decrapifier. You can see the top items removed by their users on their site.
Windows Recovery - Reset this PC
If you're having problems with Windows and you prefer to start all over again, you can reset the PC or Windows device via the Windows Settings - Recovery option. This is a little similar to completely reinstalling Windows, so be careful when choosing this option. Before using Recovery, I recommend that you back up (save) any important files to a separate storage device for safe keeping first, if you can.
To access Recovery, go to Windows Settings - Update & Security - Recovery.
Reset this PC
Clicking the above Reset this PC - Get started option will give you the choice of resetting your PC while keeping your personal files, or resetting your PC while removing your personal files. Both options remove your apps and Windows settings.
If you choose to go ahead with one of these Recovery options, simply follow the steps and Windows will reinstall and recover itself. From there you will need to reinstall your apps again if you need them, and setup some settings in Windows.
If all else fails - Reformat and do a clean Windows reinstall
For ADVANCED users:
If all else fails and you ask someone for computer maintenance advice, you might well hear the word 'reformat'. This simply translates to wiping your hard drive clean and reinstalling Windows from scratch.
This is a little similar to the above recovery option, only it completely reinstalls Windows from scratch.
Although this can be a time-consuming process for beginners, in most cases it means that you end up with a cleanly installed, and smoothly running Operating System.
Reformatting deletes all data on the hard drive. so if you can, back up (save) any files you want to keep to a separate USB drive or device, before you reformat.
Monitor LED goes green then orange
Monitor light turns green and then immediately back to orange with no picture.Assuming the monitor is the only thing not working.
1. Check connection to PC and video card.
2. Switch the computer off at the wall and make sure video card is properly seated in the motherboard. It might take various attempts depending on alignment.
3. Press the reset CMOS button on the motherboard. If this then allows the PC to reboot into the bios and the monitor comes on, you might just need a new CMOS battery for the motherboard.
Games and videos stutter
Games, videos etc. are stuttering and the computer seems to be struggling to play them, where in the past there was no problem..
1. Check your graphics card. If it has a fan, check it is clean, unclogged of debris and freely able to spin. Check that the airflow inside the case is OK too. Clean all cooling fans, vents and dust filters.
Nowadays, many online videos are higher definition. Be aware that old computers will struggle more than newer ones.
2. (Check your CPU is adequately cooled.
Do you have a hair dryer which can blow out cold air to test? It might be time to upgrade the cooler or heatsink on it.)
3. Update your graphics drivers.
4. If it's the first time playing a game, turn down the in-game video settings or use the 'recommended' video settings and see if the in-game stuttering stops.
Cannot install Windows. PC reboots
The PC reboots at the wrong time or switches off completely when installing the operating system (Windows).
1. Check all connections inside the case.
2. Unplug all unnecessary non-essential hardware and USB devices.
3. Check CPU is getting enough air and nothing is overheating. (Try extra cooling - like blowing cold air with a hair dryer onto the CPU to test.)
6. If the motherboard is not new, consider changing its CMOS battery. (The small, flat, round battery which clips onto the motherboard.)
Unfortunately, this can be a very hit and miss issue.
Cannot get an internet connection
Make sure that your internet cable is plugged into your modem AND your computer. Make sure that the modem is switched on and the correct activity lights on the modem are lit up.
Remember to set up the internet connection in Windows and enter your login info and password, as required and supplied by your internet service provider.
Reboot (turn on and off) BOTH the computer AND the modem.
If you still can't get a connection or the connection fails to show up in Windows, look for a driver CD that came with your motherboard. Windows might simply need the appropriate ethernet drivers for your motherboard. A driver CD is often supplied by the motherboard manufacturer to support various things including the ethernet (internet connections) on the motherboard.
Install any supplied ethernet drivers.
Reboot both the computer and the modem again, and then try setting up the internet connection again in windows if necessary.
System keeps rebooting
The system keeps rebooting.
If the system keeps rebooting before Windows has fully started up, what is the last message (from the bios) which appears on the screen before it reboots?
Have you changed, updated, installed or plugged in anything recently just before this problem? Does reversing that action and then rebooting fix the problem?
Is the PC busy when it keeps rebooting? (Is it overheating?)
Is the weather much warmer and are your cooling fans, including the CPU and video card fans spinning?
Check your PSU (Power Supply) and make sure it is clean and its fan is clean and able to spin freely.
Has your security software been working and kept up to date?
Unwanted rebooting issues are tricky to diagnose as there are many variables and possible causes.
Is the date or time showing on the PC anywhere incorrect? If so, consider replacing the CMOS battery (the small round flat battery on the motherboard). (These batteries are often sold in convenience stores.)
System fails to POST
The computer turns on and the case fans and video card fans spin. However, the Hard drive fails to spin up, the system doesn't reach POST and the monitor powers down. Switch PC off. Check all connections. Then try resetting the BIOS by removing the CMOS battery on the motherboard for a few seconds and then putting it back. If the system then reaches POST when you turn it on, consider getting a new CMOS battery. (These batteries are often sold in convenience stores. Be sure to get the same or correct type.)
Computer asks me about Virus Definitions and Security Updates
Security software needs to update what are known as virus definitions.
Virus definitions are updates which are able to recognize the latest viruses, spyware or other unwanted internet junk.
If your security program (not some other internet popup window) is advising you to update your definitions, then go ahead and update them.
It is advisable to set your security software to update automatically.
(Make sure that it is the security application telling you to update and not some online internet message, advertisement or other browser popup window.)
You could skip or close the open window which contains the message, if you are not sure about it, and go straight to the security application, open that and update virus definitions or security updates from there.
Cannot play a media file type
Sometimes we come across a file type which the PC cannot play properly, be it music or probably video. More often than not it is because the computer doesn't have the appropriate codec. If you download and install a codec pack like K-Lite Codec Pack and then restart your computer, then most file types should be recognized and play OK.
I accidentally deleted some files
If you delete a file or some files accidentally then you have a few options available to try to get those files back. If you haven't emptied the recycle bin then the files are probably still there, in which case right-click the recycle bin and choose Open to view any files. Right-clicking and restoring or dragging those files to another place will make them available to you again.
If you have emptied the bin then you could still be able to access any lost files depending on how much computing you have done since.
When a file is deleted (when the bin is emptied) the space that the file occupies is labeled as available space for Windows to use. If Windows uses that space by, for example writing another file, then it will be more difficult (or impossible) to get to the original file.
So if you have deleted files, try to do as little computing as possible and definitely don't save any other files to the same drive that the files were on, if you can help it.
Then consider these free programs which can sometimes help you find lost or deleted files.
You would be advised to download and install any of these programs to an alternate drive to the drive where the files were lost.
The tips on this page will help you have a smoother running PC or Windows device.
Any recommended apps or extensions here have good reputations and are free to use.